2003

Label: Definitiva - DEF 01.03 EP • Format: CD EP • Country: Italy • Genre: Electronic • Style: Italodance, House

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Apple Music, Tidal, Google Play Produced by Daft Punk. Such distinct element methods may prove to have much wider applications in the future. The editors hope that these demonstrations of advanced analysis applied to geotechnical engineering problems might encourage engineers to consider incorporating them in their strategies. Perhaps equally important, such analyses might enable them to extrapolate more effectively experience gained from one geotechnical site to another.

CHAN and Y. XIE 2. SEED, J. POTTS 5. Analysis of the Dynamics of Pile Driving M. Part I: Continua N. LAST and R. The mechanical model of this interaction when combined with suitable constitutive description of the porous medium and with efficient, discrete, computation procedures, allows most transient and static problems involving deformations to be solved.

This chapter describes the basic procedures and the development of a general purpose computer program SWANDYNE-X for static and dynamic analyses of saturated and semi-saturated soils. The results of the computations are validated by comparison with experiments. An approximate reconstruction of the failure of the Lower San Fernando Dam during the earthquake is presented.

This interaction is particularly strong in dynamic problems and may lead to a catastrophic softening of the material known as liquefaction which frequently occurs under earthquake loading. Figure 1 illustrates a typical FIG. Liquefaction of soil and collapse of buildings at Niigata, Japan, Although this example is rather dramatic, the interaction is present in more mundane, quasi static situations typical of the foundation behaviour of most engineering structures and a quantitative prediction of the phenomena resulting in permanent deformation or unacceptably high pore pressure increases is a necessity if safe behaviour of such structures is to be guaranteed.

In addition, of course, the phenomena are of interest to geophysicists and geographers studying the behaviour of surface deposits. The two phase behaviour just described allows the solution of many problems of practical interest, but is not adequate in others where semi-saturated conditions exist. In particular, if negative fluid pressures develop, dissolved air is released from the fluid or simply enters into the mixture via the boundaries and thus both air and water fill the voids.

Indeed it is this semi-saturated state that permits the negative pressures to be maintained through the mechanism of capillary forces. The saturated behaviour is fundamental and, though understood in principle for some considerable time, can only be predicted quantitatively by elaborate numerical computations, which fortunately today is possible due to the developments of powerful computers.

It is the aim of this chapter to present a full account of the development of such numerical procedures and to extend such formulations to problems of semi-saturated behaviour with a simplifying assumption concerning the air flow.

The results of the computations are validated by comparison with model experiments. Such validation is of course essential to convince the sceptics and indeed to show that all stages of the mathematical modelling are possible today. It is necessary to generate a predictive capacity which in general, due to the scale of the phenomena, cannot be accurately tested in the laboratory.

The full modelling involves several stages each introducing some degree of approximation. These are a establishment of a mathematical framework adequately describing the phenomena, b establishment of numerical discrete approximation procedures, c establishment of constitutive models for the behaviour of the components. The formulation will be given in full dynamic context, which presents the most difficult situation.

However, such phenomena as slow consolidation or even purely static behaviour will be immediately available from the solution as special cases. The procedure presented here forms the essential stepping stone for formulations of multiphase behaviour. Indeed, the extension of such a procedure to three phase behaviour has been given in Li et al.

The Biot theory was extended to deal with non-linear material behaviour and large strain effects by Zienkiewicz and Zienkiewicz and Shiomiand the basis, with the derivation of the essential equations governing the phenomena, is summarized below.

The mechanics of all geomaterials and indeed of other porous media is conveniently described on a macroscopic scale assuming the size of solid grains and pores to be small compared with the dimensions considered. This allows averaged variables to be used and we list below the most essential ones: Advanced geotechnical analyses 4 Total stress ay: This is defined by considering in the usual manner the resultant forces acting on unit sections of the solid fluid ensemble.

This definition will be applied to the current, deformed state and the Cauchy stress is written as ay using the usual indicial notation for Cartesian axes x u Xj. A positive sign for tension is assumed. Solid matrix displacement u t : This defines the mean displacement of particles forming the solid matrix in the co-ordinate direction x t. Pore pressure p: This characterises the mean stress in the fluid phase.

Of course deviatoric stresses exist in the fluid on a microscale but this overall effect can be represented by viscous drag forces exerted by the fluid on the solid phase which will be accounted for by the usual Darcy expression later.

Pressure is defined as positive in the compressive sense. Mean fluid velocity relative to the solid phase w t : This is conveniently measured as the ratio of the fluid flow over the gross, deformed, cross-sectional area.

With the above definitions we can proceed to individual basic relationships which will govern the problem analysis. In soil mechanics this leads to the concept of effective stress introduced by Terzaghi and Skempton In what follows we shall use the second effective stress definition and write all the constitutive laws with respect to this incrementally.

In eqn 6 we have underlined terms which in an approximate theory can be conveniently omitted and we shall pursue this notation in the present section. The second governing equation is that defining the momentum equilibrium for the fluid alone.

For isotropy these are conveniently replaced by a single k value. We should note that in general the permeability may be a function of strain via the changes of porosity and of external temperature, that is T] 10 The final equation complementing above is one of flow conservation for the fluid phase. The above equations, valid in the saturated domain of the problem, govern both static and dynamic behaviour phenomena. When the constitutive parameters are defined these equations can be solved, as shown later, by a suitable numerical scheme providing appropriate boundary and initial conditions are correctly imposed.

The solution of the full equations in which ii ir w, and p remain as variables is expensive and only necessary when high frequency phenomena are dealt with. For the majority of geomechanical problems we can omit the terms underlined in the various equations and arrive at a reduced system which leads to major computational economies.

This simplified system is described in the next section. When acceleration frequencies are low as in the case in earthquake motion, the underlined terms in eqns 6Believe (Euro Extended) - Various - Definitiva E.P. Volume 1 (CD), 8 and 11 involving the relative acceleration of the fluid are not important and can be omitted as shown by Zienkiewicz and Bettess and Zienkiewicz et al.

The omission of the underlined terms allows w, to be eliminated from the equation system retaining only u, and p as primary variables. This allows an iterative correction or at last an assessment of error at any stage of the subsequent numerical computation. With this simplification we can write the governing equation system as Oij.

This effect of capillary forces is clearly only dependent on the intermaterial surface tensions and the geometry of the surfaces and hence on the saturation.

Further if water or air flow occurs in the respective phases the permeability coefficients will, by similar arguments, be again unique functions of S w. Thus for instance k w kJS w 18a and k a k :l S w 18b The determination of the relationships 17 and 18 has been a subject of extensive studies namely Liakopoulos, ; Neuman, ; Van Genuchten et al.

In Fig. Computational approaches to the dynamics and statics of saturated and unsaturated soils 9 3. Bishop appears to be the first to use and justify an effective stress thus defined. The concept of defining the material behaviour in terms of the new effective stress is by no means universally accepted.

Arguments against its use have been cogently summarised by Lloret et al. Such wettability does in fact determine the effective contact areas and hence the definition of the true stresses in the solid matrix. Although it would be a simple matter to adjust the following formulations to use relation 19bthe lack of experimental data precludes its current use.

Before establishing the final equations requiring solution which in a full three phase mixture would require the consideration of air as well as water flow we introduce here a further simplifying assumption. This implies that the resistance to the flow of air is so small that at all points of the system the air pressure is zero ambient external, atmospheric, value. S' w and p w are uniquely related no additional variables are introduced in the final solution as shown in the next section. Here the starting point is provided by eqns 8 — 11omitting the negligible terms for clarity.

Similarly no changes are introduced in the Darcy seepage law of eqn 9i. Here the most important change is the addition of the storage term due to changes of saturation S wi. Elimination of tv, from eqn 27 by the use of eqns 23 and 25 results finally in a form identical to that of 14i. The general code so extended allows both fully and partially saturated regions to be treated simultaneously.

It is of interest to remark that the highly non-linear variation of permeability with the negative pore pressures which describes a physical reality as shown in Fig. The drop of permeability in the semi-saturated zone is such that the flow is reduced to a negligible amount there and the contour of. DesaiBathe and Khoshgoftan and Desai and Li have introduced this artifice for the solution of steady state seepage problems. In a subsequent example we shall show how the present formulation achieves this naturally.

We shall use here the finite element procedures for both spatial and time discretization. This is not necessarily the optimal form for computation in which we have in fact retained the index notation. Such parameters may but not must correspond to nodal values of the appropriate variables.

The governing equations 21 and 29 can now be transformed into a set of algebraic equations in space with only time derivatives remaining by the use of an appropriate Galerkin or weighted residual statement. This permits the approximation to satisfy the equations in an integral, mean, sense. The above discrete governing equation contains implicitly the two unknown parameters u and Ponly, as the increments of stresses are given by the constitutive relation in terms of displacement increments.

The above allows a" to be continuously integrated from the known initial values of the problem. Various Advanced geotechnical analyses 14 forms utilize the finite element concept in the time domain but here we shall use the simplest single step schemes available Newmark, ; Katona and Zienkiewicz, At and are the unknowns. The Jacobian matrix can be written as W'W.

This explicit procedure first used by Leung and Zienkiewicz et al. The iterative procedure allows the determination of the effect of terms neglected in the u—p approximation and hence an assessment of the accuracy. Such staggered procedures, if stable, can be extremely economical as shown by Park and Felippa but the particular system of equations presented here needs stabilization.

This was first achieved by Park and later a more effective form was introduced by Zienkiewicz et al. It should be remarked that the basic form of solution for the two unknowns u and p remains unchanged whether the solid is fully saturated or partially saturated. If the pore Advanced geotechnical analyses 16 pressure is positive i. If the pore pressure becomes negative during the computation, partial saturation becomes immediately operative and.

Special cases of solution are incorporated in the general solution scheme presented without any modification and indeed without loss of computational efficiency. Here time is still real and we have omitted purely the inertia effects though with implicit schemes this a-priori assumption is not necessary and inertia effects will simply appear as negligible without any substantial increase of computation.

In pure statics the time variable is still retained but is then purely an artificial variable allowing load incrementation. The matrix to be solved in such a limiting case is identical to that used frequently in the solution of problems of incompressible elasticity or fluid mechanics and in such studies places limitations on the approximating functions N" and N'' used in Believe (Euro Extended) - Various - Definitiva E.P. Volume 1 (CD) 30 if the so called Babuska-Brezzi convergence conditions are to be satisfied Babuska,; Brezzi Until now we have not referred to any particular element form and indeed a wide choice is available to the user if the limiting undrained condition is never imposed.

Due to the presence of first derivatives in space in all the equations, it is necessary to use Co-continuous interpolation functions Zienkiewicz and Taylor, and Fig. The form of the elements used satisfies the necessary convergence criteria of the undrained limit Zienkiewicz, Elements used for coupled analysis, displacement Believe (Euro Extended) - Various - Definitiva E.P. Volume 1 (CD) and pressure Computational approaches to the dynamics and statics of saturated and unsaturated soils 17 p formulation, a iquadratic for a; iilinear for p: b ibiquadratic for u; iibilinear for p: c ilinear for u; iilinear for p: d ilinear with cubic bubble for u; iilinear for p.

Element c is not fully acceptable at incompressible-undrained limits. Without a reasonable constitutive model the computations are worthless; but indeed a good constitutive model without a computation framework in which to use it is only an academic exercise. It is not surprising therefore that much research work has been devoted to determining such models in the last quarter of the century in parallel to the development of computation numerical analysis procedures.

This work is too extensive to report here but progress has been such that recently the behaviour of both cohesive and non-cohesive soil, rocks and concrete can be described with a reasonable amount of accuracy for most loading paths. Of course the research continues and every year new constitutive models are added to the repertoire.

Most of the soil deformation is independent of time and hence can be cast in the form of eqn 4 or 36 where the D matrix is defined by the current state of stress and strain, its history and, importantly, the direction of the strain or stress changes. The latter is essential if plastic or irreversible deformations are occurring as inevitably happens in most soils.

The first important contribution to deriving constitutive models were based on the classical theory of plasticity and here the work of the Cambridge group in the early s paved the way for the basis of deriving cohesive soil clay models.

The work of Roscoe et al. This theory has recently allowed the behaviour of sands and similar materials to be modelled effectively with a relatively small number of experimental parameters. Pastor and Zienkiewicz and Pastor et al. The loading and unloading matrices differ thus allowing permanent deformation to occur in a load cycle.

This is a most important phenomenon which accounts for such failures as that illustrated in Fig. The experimental evidence of this is however only quantitatively confirmed to date and in the Believe (Euro Extended) - Various - Definitiva E.P. Volume 1 (CD) applications shown, the effect can probably be disregarded.

The possible extension of the model to deal with this phenomenon is discussed by Pastor et al. Advanced geotechnical analyses 22 d The models used in this paper use essentially the predictive capacity for non-cohesive soils. Modification for clays and similar soils is relatively simple and is described in the last reference.

In closing this section we must remark that no available soil model is ideal in the sense of being able to reproduce precisely all observed features of experimental behaviour of soils. The present one is currently optimal but new ones will doubtless be developed and, if successful, can easily be substituted in the code.

However, the quest for precision should be tempered by a realisation that laboratory tests suffer from considerable error in the application of prescribed stresses or strains, and further that in-situ soil shows considerable variability and parameters chosen for a particular reason in practice need to show a statistical approach. The first example represents such a qualitative test to demonstrate that the effects observed in the Niigata soil layer liquefaction of Fig.

The fairly rapid reduction of Computational approaches to the dynamics and statics of saturated and unsaturated soils 23 FIG. Computation showing pore pressure build up to liquefaction and subsequent consolidation in a typical soil layer.

Excess pore pressure at i G, ii D, iii A, iv C; v vertical displacement of the dyke. The device type is a 6 pressure transducer. Device number iii, iiiivv Advanced geotechnical analyses 26 such pressures at points situated at considerable depth and the almost constant excess pressures persisting for a long period closer to the surface are at first glance a paradox.

The first example is qualitative for the fairly obvious reason that any a-posteriori reconstruction of events taking place in nature will lack sufficient quantitative information on the event and the materials of the structure.

For this reason a series of controlled experiments on the centrifuge at Cambridge University were carried out by Professor Schofield to provide precise measurements of dynamic input, displacements and pore pressure development in some typical situations.

Such experiments are shown in Fig. The difficulties of recording displacements in the experiment limit that particular set of data but those observed together with pore pressure recorded show a very reasonable comparison with results of computation.

Tests carried out at Cambridge were recorded by Venter who also carried out tests allowing at least some of the soil parameters to be identified. Others had to be guessed from external information. We do not show here any static computation results, although such static analyses had to be carried out to establish initial conditions of dynamics.

Quasi-static consolidation validation is however well documented in Fig. The problem has of course been studied extensively since but so far no quantitative analysis has succeeded in reproducing the mechanism of the failure Zienkienwicz et al. The reconstruction of events by Seed et al. Failure and reconstruction of original conditions of lower San Fernando dam after earthquake, according to Seed In the present section we use this example to illustrate the computational process although comparison with the actual occurrence is, perforce, still basically impossible due to the lack of full records.

While in the last section we used a fully documented centrifuge test as a benchmark similar tests are not available here, probably due to scaling difficulties in the centrifuge test necessary to model the semi-saturated conditions in the upper region of the dam.

The resistance of this region is of considerable importance in stability analysis and indeed the neglect of negative pressures there leads to unrealistic results. Idealization of San Fernando dam for analysis, a Material zones see Table 1 ; b displacement discretization and boundary conditions; c pore pressure discretization and boundary conditions.

Initial steady-state solution. Only saturation a and pressure Computational approaches to the dynamics and statics of saturated and unsaturated soils 29 contours b are shown. Contour interval in b is 75 kPa. Preliminary computation indicates clearly that without such cohesion, an almost immediate local failure develops in the dry material on shaking. Advanced geotechnical analyses 30 iii FIG.

Deformed shapes of the dam at times i 15s end of earthquakeii 30s, iii 90s, iv s. Horizontal left and vertical right displacements: a on the crest; b at point E, c at point H; d at point I. See Fig. Results of analysis with increased penneabilities: a defonned shape of the dam at 15 s; b deformed shape of the dam at s; c horizontal displacement on the crest; d vertical displacement on the crest, e excess pore pressure at point A; f excess pore pressure at point D.

Results of analysis with softer materials. Defonned shapes of the dam at i 5 s, ii 10 s, iii 15 s, iv s. The above static, initial computation was carried out by the full program now operating in a static mode assuming the gravity and external water pressure to be applied without dynamic effects. Table 1 summarises the material properties assumed to describe the various zones of the dam using the constitutive model described in the Appendix.

Starting with the computed effective stress and pressure distribution the computation is carried out for the full period of the earthquake and continued for a further time of Computational approaches to the dynamics and statics of saturated and unsaturated soils 37 s.

Figures 10, 11 and 12 show the displaced form of the dam at various times, the plot of displacements at some characteristic points and the development and decay of pore pressures here only the excess, i.

The results are, we believe, quite remarkable. First, deformations are increasing for a considerable period after the end of the earthquake. This undoubtedly is aided by the redistribution of pore pressures which fall rapidly in the central portions but continue to increase or maintain nearly constant values near the upstream surface. Second, the pattern of deformation is very similar to that which occurred in the actual case showing large movements near the upstream base and indicating the motion along the failure plane.

If the permeability of the dam material is sufficiently high, it maybe impossible for an earthquake to cause any build-up of pore pressures in the embankment since the pore pressure can dissipate by drainage as rapidly Believe (Euro Extended) - Various - Definitiva E.P. Volume 1 (CD) the earthquake can generate them by shaking. Figure 13 shows the results of computation with permeabilities in Table 1 being increased by a factor of Much work has been reported by Zienkiewicz and others in the past 15 years on computational possibilities in the geomechanics area but for quite plausible reasons such computations are still infrequently used.

We hope that the prediction verified here and the possibility of modelling all phases of mechanical soil behaviour in a unified manner will have an appeal to both the practitioner and researcher. These quantities can be defined directly without specifying yield or plasticity potential although of course the classic definitions occasionally provide a useful subset.

Details of the model used in this paper for sands can be found in Pastor and Zienkiewicz and Pastor et al. The model is written in terms of the three stress invariants —p mean effective stress - q deviatoric stress -8 the Lode angle.

Vector convection is used in specifying the directions n and n 9 and transformation to the cartesian system follows the procedure given in detail by Chan et al.

The definitions and parameters which need to be determined are given below. The vectors are transformed using appropriate transformation Chan et al. Special problems of soil: general report, Proc. Error bounds for finite element methods, Numer. The finite element method with Lagrange multipliers, Numer. Finite element for surface seepage analysis without mesh iteration, Int. Anal Methods Geomech. BEAR, J. Modelling of centrifugal filtration in unsaturated deformable porous media, Adv.

Water Resources, 7, BIOT, M. Theory of elasticity and consolidation for a porous anisotropic solid, J. Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated porous solid, part I: low-frequency range, Part II: higher frequency range, J. The elastic coefficients of the theory of consolidation, J. The principle of effective stress, Teknisk Ukeblad, 39, Eringen Ed.

Ill, Academic Press, New York. On the existence, uniqueness and approximation of saddle point problems arising from Lagrange multipliers, R. Liquefaction of sands, Ph. Harvard University, U. Re-evaluation of slide of Lower San Fernando dam, J. CHAN, A. A unified finite element solution to static and dynamic problems in geomechanics, Ph.

Transfonnation of incremental plasticity relation from defining space to general Cartesian stress space, Commun. Methods, 4, Variance algorithms for minimization, Computer J. Finite element, residual schemes for unconfined flow, Int. Methods Eng. A residual flow procedure and application for free surface flow in porous media, Adv.

Water Resources, 6, On basic equations for mixtures, Quart. Yielding of overconsolidated sand and liquefaction model under cyclic stresses. Soils and Foundations, 18, A unified set of single step algorithms. Part 3: The Beta-m method a generalization of the Newmark scheme, Int.

Earthquake response of saturated soils and liquefaction, Ph. LI, X. A numerical model for immiscible two-phase fluid flow in a porous medium and its time domain solution, Int.

Transient flow through unsaturated porous media, D. Consolidation of unsaturated soils including swelling and collapse behaviour, Geotechnique, 30, Undrained loading and consolidation analysis for unsaturated soils, Proc. Methods Geomech. Uniform formulation of constitutive equations for clays and sands. In Mechanics of Engineering Materials, C. Desai and R. Gallagher Eds. Numerical model for saturated- unsaturated flow in deformable porous media 3.

Applications, Water Resources Res. Galerkin approach to saturated-unsaturated flow in porous media. In Finite Elements in Fluids, R. Gallagher et al. A method of computation for structural dynamics, Proc. PARK, K. Partitioned analysis of coupled systems. Belytschko and T. Hughes Eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. Stabilization of partitioned solution procedure for a pore fluid-soil interaction analysis, Int.

A generalised plasticity, hierarchical model for sand under monotonic and cyclic loading. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, G. Pande and W. Simple models for soil behaviour and applications to problems of soil liquefaction. Swoboda Ed. Balkhema, pp.

Generalized plasticity and the modelling of soil behaviour, Int. On the yielding of soils, Geotechnique, 8, Vertical and horizontal land deformation in a desaturating porous medium, Adv. Water Resources, 2, SEED, H. Analysis of slides of the San Fernando dams during the earthquake of February 9,J.

Consideration in the earthquake resistant design of earth and rockfill dams, Geotechnique, 29 Yielding of sand in triaxial compression, Soil and Foundations, 14 Modeling of leachate and soil interactions in an aquifer, Proc. Modelling the response of sand to cyclic loads, Ph. XIE, Y. Finite element solution and adaptive analysis for static and dynamic problems of saturated-unsaturated porous media, Ph. Staggered time marching schemes in dynamic soil analysis and selective explicit extrapolation algorithms, Proc.

Shaw et al. Drained, undrained consolidating dynamic behaviour assumptions in soils. Geotechnique, 30 Earth dam analysis for earthquakes: numerical solution and constitutive relations for non-linear damage analysis, Proc.

Dams and Earthquake, London, pp. Basic formulation of static and dynamic behaviour of soil and other porous material. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, J. Martins Ed. Riedel, London. Soils and other saturated media under transient dynamic conditions: general formulation and the validity of various simplifying assumptions. Pande and O. Zienkiewicz Eds. Earthquake response behaviour of soils with drainage, III, Proc.

C, Coupled problems and their numerical solution. In Numerical Methods in Coupled Systems. Lewis, P. Bettess and E. Hinton Eds. Dynamic behaviour of saturated porous media: the generalised Biot fonnulation and its numerical solutionInt.

Generalised plasticity formulation and applications to geomechanics. Coupled problems—a simple time stepping procedure, Commun. Methods, 1 Unconditionally stable staggered solution procedure for soil-pore fluid interaction problems, Int.

Methods Eng. The Finite Element Methods, 4th edn. Bass harmonics and toms support heavily distorted guitar arpeggi before Mirek sets up the song with a riff in the lead. The vocal here feels a little buried in the music.

Great drum, bass, and atmosphere here but the vocal is just not fitting. It's finally starting to work with the gorgeous violin-aided chorus--which is then followed by one of Mirek's signature ear candy leads. In the sixth minute organ and synth join as the drums double time for a spell, then things slow back down for another spell-binding violin solo.

What a gorgeous melody. Another song I'm going to want to hear a lot of. The pattern of heavy-Mirek riffing onslaught bridging the softer vocal sections is established until when a slow arpeggiation of a guitar chord progression plays with synth and electric guitar sounds flitting in from behind. Chords of orchestral synth wash join in with more toms while Satomi delivers a brief solo.

This is such gorgeous music. I am SO glad I decided to return and become one of those investors once I found out how to secure it. I cannot repeat enough how emotional this music is, masterful in both composition and delivery. This is NOT the album I was expecting: Believe albums always seem to fall short of expectations and desires. Not this one. This is a sheer masterpiece of progressive rock music--one for the ages!

Five stars; a certifiable masterpiece of progressive rock music. Review by Tarcisio Moura Prog Reviewer. At first I did not enjoy the album very much, it reminded me too much in the style of The Bread is Mine, but like another reviewer here said, after a few spins you start to get it: the music is very good, deceptively simplistic and full of details.

It is a step forward into the right direction, with better songwriting and more personality. Great prog stuff, even if not exactly bombastic.

It shows more clearly the direction the band would go from then on. Rating: something between 3,5 and 4 stars. Even with a couple of missteps this CD is still above mere very good. It looks like Believe finally got rid of all the elements that hampered their music i. Yet, it sounds full, complete and symphonic all the way. Instruments come and go at the right moment, showing a great team work. That rhythm section really knows about light and shade. Surprisingly, Satomi herself handles all the keyboards duties and does a fine job too.

New singer Lukasz Ociepa has a very nice voice and his passionate delivering is quite moving. You hardly notice any difference. The songwriting sees the band again at its best: 7 tracks all over the 8 minute mark and 65 minutes of music in total that seems to end too fast.

Emotional vocals, tasteful arrangements and beautiful solos all wrapped up by a crystal clear production. Who could ask for more? Every tracks is a gem and they all blend in for a smooth listening. Only the closer VI the tunes have no titles, only numbers with its heavy rhythm guitar intro does have a slightly gothic metal feeling, but it is only for a few moments before it segues into the the new style Believe has created and finishes the album with a high note.

Conclusion: my favorite album ofand one of the best I heard in decades. It is really a joy to see a band like Believe, which started quite promising but never seeming to reach its full potential for years, finally surpassing all expectations and evolving into something so marvelous, in the tradition of bands like Collage, Quidam and Albion.

Poland still delivers great prog music! Rating: ten stars with honors! Essential for any neo prog lover and highly recommended to anyone who enjoys fine music!

Well, OK, it is different, but in a good way. The Warmest Of The Sun is definitely a grower: they often reveal themselves as a kind of more sparse and modern sounding version of Collage.

Mirek Gil is surely the star of the show with his trademark fluid, melodic and expressive guitar solos, but it would be nothing if the songs were not up to the challenge. And they are all very good, although certainly also more demanding to the listener than the music of Collage and Satellite.

Yes, for my taste I still think Collage and Satellite are better, but since neither band has delivered anything new lately, this is the best next thing.

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