LV: Oula is a mediator here, relaying his experience and the manifestations as observations detached from the Oula. Intensity of temporality gives the work its particular tone and poetics.
When the sun disappears behind the clouds, the moment is gone. The work is based Oula our dialogue, as I have received these messages from Oula. Messaging requires a desire to stay in touch, proximity as well as distance. Usually I receive these messages when I am at home and he is out in the hills. TE: Could you expand on this dialogical artistic and research methodology?
LV: My artistic work became research-led when I came to live within the reindeer herding Sami life world. First of all, I wondered how Oula perceived the landscape as cramped, while I only saw boundless open space. I discovered novel phenomena in the everyday, such as how the turning of the wind can severely impact the plans. At times the wind supports the reindeer, at other times it makes their survival challenging.
I began to also pose questions to Oula and sometimes I got responses as text messages after a long while. These answers formed the base of my doctoral thesis, and some are also included in this work. TE: The work consists of archive material—personal text messages—and documentation of an environment and a way of life.
Yet it differs significantly from documentary as well as anthropological narration. How would you describe this approach in your artistic practice to its environment and subject matter? LV: The messages arise from a mode of life that is deeply engaged with nature. This engaged life gives also the possibility to be captured and amazed by the environment. That is what sustains the creative process—likewise the constant testing, reflecting the artistic thinking back to the practice and the life world.
The work does not therefore follow an anthropological approach, where someone else positions the camera, poses questions and explains the events. Here, Oula has decided on the content of the messages and the images. Viewers do not, however, see him but rather encounter his views and thoughts. They get to stand alongside and share some of his particular human experience. TE: How do you see the future from this specific Northern perspective? Technology is making ever more tangible the destructiveness of our mode of life.
We are aware of the complicated global interrelations of environmental concerns. Personal connection with the reindeer carries with it a long cultural continuum. Only one generation ago, life with the reindeer was sustainable. We can still recognise this ecological way of existence, but now we are living through numerous extremely complex transitions simultaneously.
A birth doula may accompany a pregnant woman during labor and birth in place of or in addition to a partner, family member or friend. Unlike these other birth companions, a doula has formal training in labor support.
Most doula-client relationships begin a few months before the baby is due. Before the labor, the doula and the family can develop a relationship where the pregnant woman and their support person for example the father of the baby feel free to ask questions and express fears and concerns, and discuss birth preferences, Oula.
Continuous support during labor provided by doulas has been associated with improved outcomes for both birthing women and babies, including shorter delivery, fewer caesarean sections and complications, the use fewer medications and fetal extraction tools, less time in neonatal intensive care unitspositive psychological benefits, more satisfying birth experiences, and increased breastfeeding. These benefits appear to be contingent on the doula providing continuous rather than intermittent assistance and having knowledge about the specific social and cultural setting within which their services are provided.
In Marchthe American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG put out a Consensus Statement titled "Safe Prevention of Primary Cesarean Delivery" in which it said, "Increasing [a woman's] access to non-medical interventions during labor, such as continuous labor support, also has been shown to reduce cesarean birth rates.
Doulas could be utilized to help achieve many of these recommendations as they move towards better collaboration. In the United Kingdom's Royal College of Midwives published a position statement on doulas, which supports the choice of the individual to hire a doula for their birth as long as the doula does not provide medical care. A study examined women's perceptions of doulas in several different countries, including Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Malawi, Sweden, Nepal, Russia, Canada, and the United States of America and found that having continuous support from a companion such as a doula was highly appreciated by most women.
Tensions between doctors, nurses and doulas have sometimes been described as a "turf battle,"  though it is also recognized that doulas and nurses can occupy complementary roles that provide opportunities for mutual learning and assistance. There is no law requiring doulas to become certified, however certification can benefit professional doulas by providing structured education prior to entry into the field, access to a mentor, opportunities for networking, and client confidence.
Certification can occur through organizations at various levels local, national or international and some require positive evaluations from medical professionals. Certification may also require, in addition to attending a training course, time spent Oula or learning about maternity care and childbirth classes and possibly a written exam. There is a movement to encourage certification, and provide documentation of it on consumer websites such as DoulaMatch where an individual can find certified doulas, childbirth educators, yoga instructors, and other birth-related professionals.
Amy Gilliland, a researcher on doula care and culture, also lists some qualities a training program should have. Ina survey of professional Canadian doulas found that the common motivations for doula work include "desire to support women in childbirth, personal interest, and a wish to share their own positive birth experience with others" but did not see the work as a means to create steady income.
A study of North American doulas identified challenges to doula work such as lack of support from clinicians, balancing doula work with family and other work obligations, and being on call. Doulas have to negotiate the power dynamics between the patient and medical provider, while also establishing their legitimacy and role in the process of childbirth. An antepartum doula provides help and support to someone who has been put on bed rest or is experiencing a high-risk pregnancy.
Emotional, physical and practical support can be provided by an antepartum doula in these circumstance. Postpartum doulas provide educational support and practical support in the home in the first weeks and months after childbirth or after adding an infant to the family.
The same doula often provides both birth and postpartum services. Other workers overlap in some of these services, such as maternity nurses, health visitors, newborn care specialists, lactation consultants, and, historically, monthly nurses.
Full-spectrum doulas extend the role of a birth attendant and provide support for all reproductive experiences which connect the role to the larger reproductive justice movement. They provide emotional, physical, and informational support virtually or in person. End-of-life or death doulas care for critically ill adults in geriatric care and during death. In the United States, doulas may be found in hospital, community-based programs as well as private practice or doula agencies and may be reimbursed by insurance companies or out-of-pocket by clients.
Three states, OregonMinnesotaand Wisconsinhave currently implemented reimbursement programs. Doulas in New York however have taken issue with the bill, having not been involved with the bill's writing, citing that state certification would make doulas more beholden to the formal medical system, be a Oula to business if certification programs are not approved by the state, and hurt community doulas from working with low-income individuals.
In the UK, the National Health Service and promotion of midwifery for low-risk pregnancies provide a continuity of care not available to North American pregnant individuals, but still are seeing an upswing in doulas. This pattern has been suggested to be a result of the lack of midwives available and a move to provide doulas to individuals at greater risk for poor outcomes.
A study reviewed perceptions of labor companionship across mostly high income countries and found barriers that prevent doula care from being universally implemented. These challenges are due to a multitude of factors dealing with perception providers not understanding the benefits or roles, other medical aspects being seen as more important and logistics gaps in policy, difficulty of integration, lack of training.
Community-based doulas work with underserved communities of which they are often members of to provide a sense of cultural humility that fosters trust and strengthens relationships between the doula and their client. The services provided are often low cost, and expand in the amount of support offered compared to traditional doulas and consider physical, social spiritual and emotional needs.
Services include an increased amount of home visits, preparation for the birthing experience, education, guidance navigating health care systems, language support, screening for mental health, and food security needs.
Additionally, community-based doula models provide insight in the creation of policies that will support those families and underserved communities. Since the s, women incarcerated in the US has increased nearly percent, of which an estimated 12, pregnant women are incarcerated annually. Pregnant prisoners are allowed to be shackled in more than 20 states and are forced to return to jail within 24 hours without their infants. By providing doula services to jails, prisons, recovery centers, and county hospitals, doulas work to improve birth experiences and bonding as well as to challenge the dehumanizing penal environment.
While well-received, prison doula support is not widespread in the United States and most programs are local due to the lack of an established federal standard of medical care for pregnant incarcerated individuals. However, the bill does not establish means of funding the services, and does not establish guidelines for care.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Doula disambiguation. A non-medical companion who supports a birthing woman.
This section is missing information about description. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. August See also: Postpartum confinement. DONA International. Retrieved A systematic review". Rohs, Katie 5th ed. Da Capo Press. Women's Health Issues. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. Cochrane Pregnancy Oula Childbirth Group ed. Critical Care Nurse.
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