As Slave works on a Ph. It's important to know and tell these peoples' stories," Stewart said. It's the ugly part of history and people don't like to talk about that, but it happened and it's true. Garrett, an anaesthesiology physician by trade, says we're only "just beginning" to dig into this history.
Slavery in the Americas, defined by the European trade of captive Africans, predates Christopher Columbus and spans years to the U. Civil War, according to Christopher Brown, a Columbia University history professor who teaches and conducts research on the slave trade.
In that time, an estimated 12 million Africans were taken from their homes. Around 10 million arrived in the Americas. The idea of "Blackness" is born out of slavery. The people stolen from their homes had cultures of "extraordinary variety and diversity," Brown said. Enslaved peoples had dozens of languages and a plethora of different styles of religious and spiritual beliefs.
It'd be as if years ago, all the indigenous peoples between Boston, Massachusetts, and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil were taken elsewhere and forced to adopt a uniform identity, Brown said.
Not a lot. They don't know each other… In some cases they're not even aware of each other … but [they] reside in the same hemisphere. Something similar [is] at work on the West African side, from Senegal to Angola. Today, the descendants of enslaved people experience not only the remnants of slavery in racism and discrimination, but also a disconnect from their African heritage and ancestry.
It leaves so many Black Americans yearning for a connection to understand and pinpoint their roots in Africa. Stewart said he used to take people who couldn't dive to the wreck site of the Henrietta Marie, one of the first slave shipwrecks found in the s. Even knowing the Henrietta Marie didn't have any Africans onboard when it went down," he said.
Brown, a professor who's taught about the slave trade for over a decade, had his own experience with this when he arrived in Ghana during his first visit to Africa. Dives start the night before even getting in the water -- at least that's when it starts for Erik Denson, a year diving pro who works by day as a NASA electrical chief engineer at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The night before a Slave, Denson prepares and tests his fins, mask, snorkel, regulator and his own tanks equipped with Nitrox, a gas that provides a higher concentration of oxygen so that divers can stay underwater for longer and prevent more severe symptoms of decompression sickness.
Rachel Stewart remembers when an instructor in the Youth DWP program would wake up the young divers early in the morning and gather them for yoga so that they could stretch before a day of diving. The program emphasizes planning and assignments for each diver. For safety reasons, scuba is never done alone, so each member is paired with a buddy. The divers carry two tanks, with each one allowing for about an hour of underwater time, depending on how heavily the diver breathes and how deep the water is.
Long before the dive happens, archaeologists must first tow a magnetometer back and forth in the water, systematically searching for any metallic anomalies along the seafloor.
Divers are needed to investigate whether the anomalies detected by the equipment are refuse, like lobster traps and old televisions -- or valuable artifacts. Divers first create one or more baselines -- basically stretching a tape measure from one point to another underwater -- and then place pin flags by any areas of interest, like a possible artifact, which can be hard to discern after so much time Slave underwater.
Divers match each point to the baseline and then draw everything with dimensions. It's tedious but the work suits Stewart, who's getting her PhD in environmental engineering. In the past a serf usually was an agriculturalist, whereas, depending upon the society, a slave could be employed in almost any occupation. Canonically, serfdom was the dependent condition of much of the western and central European peasantry from the time of the decline of the Roman Empire until the era of the French Revolution.
Whether the term serfdom appropriately describes the condition of the peasantry in other contexts is a matter of vigorous contention. Be that as it may, the serf was also distinguished from the slave by the fact that he was usually the subject of the law—i. The serf, moreover, was usually bound to the land the most significant exception was the Russian serf between about andwhereas the slave was always bound to his owner; i. The serf usually owned his means of production grain, livestock, implements except the land, whereas the slave owned nothing, often not even the clothes on Slave back.
A person became an indentured servant by borrowing money and then voluntarily agreeing to work off the debt during a specified term. In some societies indentured servants probably differed little from debt slaves i. Debt slaves, however, Slave, were regarded as criminals essentially thieves and thus liable to harsher treatment. Perhaps as many as half of all the white settlers in North America were indentured servants, Slave, who agreed to work for someone the purchaser of the indenture upon arrival to pay for their passage.
Some indentured servants alleged that they were treated worse than slaves; the economic logic of the situation was that slave owners thought of their slaves as a long-term investment whose value would drop if maltreated, whereas the short-term typically four years indentured servants could be abused almost to death because their masters had only a brief interest in them.
Practices varied, but indenture contracts sometimes specified that the servants were to be set free with a sum of money, sometimes a plot of land, perhaps even a spouse, whereas for manumitted slaves the terms usually depended more on the generosity of the owner.
Peons were either persons forced to work off debts or criminals. Peons, who were the Latin American variant of debt slaves, were forced to work for their creditors to pay off what they owed. They tended to merge with felons because people in both categories were considered criminals, and that was especially true in societies where money fines were the main sanction and form of restitution for crimes.
Thus, the felon who could not pay his fine was an insolvent debtor. The debt peon had to work for his creditor, and the labour of the criminal peon was sold by the state to a third party. Peons had even less recourse to the law for bad treatment than did indentured servants, and the terms of manumission for the former typically were less favourable than for the latter.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Historical survey Slave-owning societies Slave societies Slavery in the Americas The international slave trade Ways of ending slavery The law of slavery Sources of slavery law Legal definitions of slavery Master-slave legal relationships Family and property Legal relationships between slave owners Legal relationships between slaves and free strangers Laws of manumission The sociology of slavery The slave as outsider Attitudes toward slavery: the matter of race Slave occupations Agriculture Slave demography Slave protest Slave culture.
Author of Slavery in Russia, — Britannica Quiz. American Civil War Quiz. Like most other Athabaskan tribes, the Slave were separated into a number of independent bands, each of which was rather loosely organized, with only nominal leaders, and was associated with certain hunting territories.
An informal council of hunters settled disputes. Women and the aged were treated with a respect and kindness that was not typical of all Athabaskans. The Slave were inhabitants of the forests and riverbanks; they hunted moose, woodland caribou, and other game but also relied heavily on fish for food.
Animal skins were made into robes, shirts, leggings, moccasins, and other clothing; fringes and ornaments made of antlers, porcupine quills, and other natural materials were popular.
Their dwellings consisted of brush-covered tepees in summer and rectangular huts formed of poles and spruce branches in winter. The Slave believed in guardian spirits, in the power of medicine men, and in an undefined life after death. A common practice was the deathbed confession of sins, thought to contribute to the delay of death.
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